oral, aural

The words oral, aural sound the same but have different meanings and spellings. Why do oral, aural sound the same even though they are completely different words?

The answer is simple: oral, aural are homophones of the English language.

aural
  1. :: adjective

    Of, relating to, or perceived by the ear.

  2. :: adjective

    Characterized by or relating to an aura.

oral
  1. :: adjective

    Spoken rather than written. See Usage Note at verbal.

  2. :: adjective

    Of or relating to the mouth: oral surgery.

  3. :: adjective

    Used in or taken through the mouth: an oral thermometer; an oral vaccine.

  4. :: adjective

    Consisting of or using speech: oral instruction.

Definitions from The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language, 4th Edition and Wordnik.

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About Homophones

Homophones (literally "same sound") are usually defined as words that share the same pronunciation, regardless of how they are spelled.

If they are spelled the same then they are also homographs (and homonyms); if they are spelled differently then they are also heterographs (literally "different writing").